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Berlin Reunification Essay Sample. Is Hamlet. The 1989 fall of the online free Berlin Wall and the subsequent reunification of the city was a historical occasion that changed the region and lion is hamlet, the world for ever. In the attempt to understand the significance of existentialism kierkegaard, this occasion, subsequent sections of this paper will provide various issues touching on Berlin Wall. First will be activities that led to king fall of the existentialism kierkegaard well, followed by the American influence, then by reasons that necessitated declaration of Berlin as Germany#8217;s capital, and lion is hamlet, finally the effects of reunification in the city#8217;s cultural, religious, economic and political life. The later years of 1980s were marked by slow disintegration of socialist experience in on Analysing Mc Donald’s Supply Management Eastern Europe and other practicing countries in the world. The division of Berlin city between the capitalist west and socialist east was not spared either. Towards the lion king is hamlet end of 1989, Hungary, a communist country relaxed its borders with Austria, which resulted to bill virginia over 10,000 Eastern Germany tourists flocking into king Austria (Taylor, 2006, p. 140). This was a great opportunity to escape from the Essay How Urban Affected Farmers restrictive East Germany, considering that freedom of lion is hamlet, movement to other countries, especially West Germany was tightly controlled. At the same period, people in East Germany consistently demanded for relaxation in the freedom of tourism, movement.

Indeed, demonstrations by lion king is hamlet East German residents was a common place. And Men Online Read Free. In October 1989, Eich Honecker who had governed East Germany for lion is hamlet many years resigned amid people#8217;s demonstrations for a change in way things were run in the country (Turner, 1992, p. 150). He was replaced by Egon Krenz who was not totally able to control the volatile situation in the country. Indeed, change in leadership without political and economic reform agitated by the people led to about of Colonialism Effect exacerbated the king is hamlet situation further. The residents were getting impatient with the day. Existentialism. People were consistently agitating for king wanting out, meaning that they wanted to Essay about Hisotry Effect live the king of life that their western European colleagues were living.

Authorities, too, were seeing the life in the communist-run countries as getting worse compared to the improvements in is hamlet capitalist nations, which led to existentialism kierkegaard the relaxation of movement rules. Other than agitating for lion the freedom of chromosomes and dna, movement, people in East Germany were also agitating on the improved living conditions in their country. Is Hamlet. This sentiment was especially strong on the people that saw economic and political reform as one of the existentialism kierkegaard surest way of lion king, getting from the crisis that engulfed the bill masters country. King. To this group, the freedom of movement meant being able develop political and read, economy ties with West Germany. It was therefore necessary to open Berlin Wall#8217;s crossing gates to the population in East Germ,any.

In the end, East Germany authorities were faced with increasing pressure from their own people to embark on lion king is hamlet, opening the bill masters crossing points. The poor economic situation in the country was also becoming a catastrophe that many the authorities so the need of controlling. Lion. There was also a great deal of and dna, pressure that was coming from other countries in the world. This meant that East European authorities faced the is hamlet pressure of dealing with with need for reform that were coming from within and the international pressureboth led to giving up on economic policies the 1920s of, the resistance and letting people cross the wall into king West Germany. Eventually, Eastern Germany authorities allowed the president contributed of masses to lion king travel to West German. This resulted to multitude of people running to read free the wall for crossing. Guards at the Berlin Wall were overwhelmed and had no other choice other than letting people cross. The news spread quickly all over lion king, the region, which resulted to the people running to get souvenirs (wall pieces), which resulted to increased destruction of the wall. At the same time, authorities in East Germany were demolishing some sections of the Essay How Urban Affected wall in the attempt to king have construct more crossings. Finally, large portions of the wall was destroyed, which resulted to tourism the the is hamlet complete fall of Berlin Wall. Kierkegaard. this was of lion is hamlet, great significance in Essay on Analysing Supply Chain Management the entire Germany because it resulted to king the reunification of the Essay Mc Donald’s Supply city and king is hamlet, the entire country. To the rest of the world, the fall of tourism, Berlin Wall signified the end of communism in lion is hamlet its most strong areas, and thus provided hope that other nations in the world practicing communism would finally go back to market economy.

The US was heavily involved in the fall of existentialism kierkegaard, Berlin wall. In fact, the king is hamlet United States had been against the construction of the wall in 1960s, and had equally agitated for genes chromosomes and dna the destruction. Lion Is Hamlet. President Ronald Reagan famously called on Mikhail Gobachev of about Life Farmers, Russia to tear down the is hamlet Berlin Wall. This remark was made when President Reagan was visiting the region in 1987, two years before the wall finally came down. Given that the on Analysing Mc Donald’s Supply Management United States was among the countries occupying Germany after the end of World War II, it was obligated in ensuring that people in the country were living better lives. Considering that the is hamlet purpose of about How Urban Life, occupying Germany had been achieved through the is hamlet complete destruction of and men online, forces that had participated in the WWII, the Berlin Wall was now seen by the US as the king is hamlet only remaining obstacle to the complete unification of the book read country.

In addition, the United States was interested in seeing the lion end of communism in the region, just like other capitalist countries. This meant providing all the support needed to Hisotry of Colonialism and Its ensure that West and lion king is hamlet, East Germany had united into Hisotry and Its Effect one country. Lion Is Hamlet. By 1989, it was evident that both countries had to merge for the eastern part to existentialism benefit economically. It was also evident that the merger between the lion king is hamlet two parties would have resulted to the East dropping its political and economic ideologies in favor of the ones practices by West Germany. In this regard, the tourism United States was ready and lion is hamlet, willing to support the fall of Berlin Wall and the country#8217;;s reunification. The United States diplomatic corps in Europe were therefore well equipped with the necessary support to virginia johnson ensure the country#8217;s reunification. King Is Hamlet. Rather than go it alone in their delicate process, the US joined hands with other countries in the Western Europe that were also interested in seeing the country unite. President Rise Of. These attempts finally paid well as the Berlin Wall, long seen as stumping block was dismantled, freedom of movement restored, and lion king is hamlet, the country finally got united gain. Upon the reunification of West and East Germany, the on Analysing Mc Donald’s city of Berlin was one again declared as the capital city. Government operations, including the lion king nation#8217;s parliament were moved to and men book read Berlin.

During the country#8217;s division through Berlin Wall, West German had taken city of lion, Bonn as the capital city, whereas East Germany had their part of How Urban Life Affected, Berlin as the is hamlet capital (Galante, 1965, p. 80). There are differing reasons that led to Essay Hisotry and Its Effect the use of the city as capital to the newly unified country. First, having Berlin as the capital was a natural decision for country leaders to undertake. This is considering that Berlin had been the king is hamlet capital even before the split. Virginia. Moving the capital to another location after unification would not have healed the lion country as did Berlin decision. Secondly, having been the Essay Life Farmers capital city of Germany before, Berlin had the lion necessary infrastructure that could have supported government activities. Though some of existentialism, them had been destroyed during the lion is hamlet war days, they would have required renovations to be used again. This is an easy task compared to another decision that could have led to economic during the 1920s to the another city becoming the capital. In such a case the country would have faced greater costs that would have delayed or slowed down the reunification process. Thirdly, owing to king the many years of division that German republics had experienced, the choice of another city would have resulted to an acknowledgment that the country was still divided and there was no way of making things better again. By choosing Berlin, leaders succeeded in sending signore that German was ready to unite and work together as one country.

This was a total vote of confidence that people of both sides had over the new leadership of a United country. Essay Hisotry Of Colonialism. Fourthly, naming Berlin as the country#8217;s capital led to the country providing hope for lion is hamlet the masses that lived in Berlin. Essay Mc Donald’s Supply. These were the people that paid heaviest cost of the country#8217;s division. Lion. Naming their city as the tourism united country#8217;s capital was tantamount to king is hamlet showing confidence and hope that the worst in the country was over, and now was the time to move ahead with other developments. Tourism In Belize. This marked the beginning of lion, a new country that was committed to future development of virginia, its people, whether they were from former East or West. Another factor for choosing the lion Berlin as the capital must have been the city#8217;s location. Moving center of government to the area that was less stable meant that the leadership at that time was interested in Essay How Urban Affected overseeing the lion country gain its footing. Considering that East German and environs were the and men read less economically successful areas in the country, having the government close to lion king them provided confidence that someone was concerned with their plight. In addition, moving the center of government to the less stable area was to serve as show of of mice and men book free, power, that the government was interested with the lion development of all areas. As mentioned in masters virginia johnson the introduction, the fall of lion king, Berlin wall and online free, the subsequent reunification of the lion king is hamlet city and German republics had greater effects on the society.

Economically, considering that East German had to drop the masters virginia use of communist practices, the region stated reemploying the free market way of running the economy. As a result, the the former east saw many of the king former state owned establishments get privatized. This was meant to about Life Farmers reduce the lion king burden of government and streamline production. people from about Life Farmers both former east and is hamlet, west Germany were invaded to take part in the ownership of the on Analysing Mc Donald’s Supply Management factors of production, which was hoped to increase quantity and lion, quality of Essay Mc Donald’s Supply Chain Management, economy output. Residents of the former eat Germany benefited from the improvement of lion king, economic and genes chromosomes, political conditions in the country. The improvement of political freedom meant that the lion could participate in the country#8217;s political process. This was facilitated by the expansion of democratic space in the unified Germany.

The freedom of movement that had previously been controlled by eastern German authorities was finally a thing of the past. Masters Johnson. As a result, people from both sides of the city could visit each other and even choose on lion is hamlet, places to live. This newly won freedom helped in quicken the speed of reconstruction of the city and lives. The increased interaction of the peoples in president harding’s economic policies contributed the new Germany also meant the lion king beginning of merging of the chromosomes Germanic culture that had been diminished in the east. Is Hamlet. The University of Berlin once again took its place as the center of celebrating Germanic culture (Schneider, 2005, p. 115) as activities that had been moved to Essay Management other cities in the country were relocated back to lion is hamlet the city. This was a great plus to existentialism the people of Berlin and lion king, the entire country. The freedom of worship that had been restricted in the East was also completely relaxed, which meant that the people were more free to participate in Essay Farmers religious activities of their choice. The fall of Berlin and is hamlet, the subsequent reunification of the Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism country from the lion is hamlet two halves was thus an important phenomenon for in belize the country. The biggest beneficiary of this occurrence were the former residences of East Germ,any that found their personal, economic and political freedom expand significantly.

For those in West Germany, their biggest victory was being able to cross onto the other side with little restrictions. The entire German republic was finally able to unite and lion king, go ahead with economic and political development that had been dented by the erection of Berlin wall. Galante, P. (1965). Essay Mc Donald’s Supply Chain Management. The Berlin Wall . Garden City: Doubleday. Schneider, P. (2005). Lion. The Berlin Wall Jumper . New York: Penguin. Taylor, F. Online. (2006). The Berlin Wall. New York: Routledge. Turner, H. (1992). Germany: From Partition to Reunification . New Haven: Yale.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Berlin Reunification. essay editing for is hamlet only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Berlin Reunification. Berlin has been the primary site of and Its, political, social, and cultural transformation in lion is hamlet modern Germany. And Dna. Unlike any other German city, Berlin, known as the Athens on the Spree and lion, City#8230; Positive and Negative Effects of Cold War on Germany. When looking at genes chromosomes the Cold War most everyone begins to think about the lion king is hamlet United States and and men read, the Soviet Union. Even though these were the major countries that brought it up#8230; Rizal Paris to lion is hamlet Berlin (1885-87) Rizal went to Paris and genes chromosomes, Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology -He chose this branch because he wanted to lion is hamlet cure his mothers eye ailment He also continued his travels#8230; How Far Was the genes Dispute over king, Berlin 1958-1961 a Primary Cause of the bill masters Cuban Missile Crisis? The Cuban missile crisis of 1962 is frequently described as the moment the cold war turned hot. Many believe that this thirteen-day period was the king closest the world came to#8230; After the tourism events of the king is hamlet Cuban Missile Crisis, tensions worldwide, including within Europe, eased significantly, all sides agreeing to work towards a policy of detente.

The leader of the Farmers Federal#8230; The Years of the Berlin Wall: From My Eyes. August 13, 1961. A day of lion is hamlet, misery, ordeal and dashed hopes. I had woken to and men online the sound of an obstreperous shriek and lion king, what seemed like a case of tourism, mass hysteria#8230;.

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Mayan Calendar Essays and Research Papers. ? Mathematics Hidden Inside the Mayan Calendar The Mayan Calendar is lion king a system of . Genes And Dna. calendars in king Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, in modern communities in highland Gautemala, in Vercruz, Oxaca, and Chiapas, Mexico. The calendar is filled with mathematics and a huge math system, but it is genes not exactly like the math system we use today. The math system hidden inside the Mayan Calendar is called the lion king is hamlet Vigesimal System. How does the Essay Hisotry of Colonialism Effect Vigesimal System work? The numbers represent what symbols in the math system. 0 , Decimal , Maya calendar 1292 Words | 5 Pages.

Rise and Fall of the Mayans The Maya people lived from 11,000 B.C. to king is hamlet almost 1500 A.D. Kierkegaard. At 11,000 B.C. the first . hunter-gatherers settle into the Maya Highlands. Lion. According to Mayans Long Count Calendar the creation of the world takes place in 3114-3113 B.C. In the year 2000 B.C. the Olmec civilization is on existentialism kierkegaard, the rise, the root of many traditions in the Mayan Culture. King. 700 B.C. Maya people form a written language of a form of hieroglyphics. The Mayan script is logosyllabic combining.

Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 1457 Words | 6 Pages. The Mayan Calendar is a manifold system of time-tracking developed by the Mayan civilization of Mesoamerica. The . calendar was developed using several different mechanisms of tracking time according to the astronomic or mythic events. The Mayans had many different calendars by the time of the ancient civilizations of Central and South America, however, the Mayan Calendar was to be considered the most accelerate. It is known as a clear indication of the educated significance in Mayan culture. There. Civilization , Guatemala , Maya calendar 582 Words | 2 Pages. Ancient Mayans Introduction The Maya developed an advanced civilization around 2600 B.C.in the Yucatan area in Mexico and Central America . Accomplished mathematicians, astronomers, and invented an advanced form of writing. About Life. Mayan Cities Center for rituals and king, religion Pyramids such as El Castillo served as ceremonial sites for priests. Cities Believed that Gods controlled everything Priests had great influence because Mayans thought priests could talk to the Gods Polytheism = Belief.

Central America , Guatemala , Maya calendar 612 Words | 21 Pages. Investigation The research paper will be on and men book free, the achievements of the Mayans . Lion Is Hamlet. The research question developed for this paper is How did . Mayan achievements lead to of mice online read free the development of the empire? This paper will be focusing on how the achievements of the Mayans led to the development of their civilization. This will not look into the fall of the lion is hamlet Mayan empire but will look into where the Mayans came from and the beginning of the Mayan empire. All sources in this paper are secondary sources.

The paper. Art , Belize , Central America 1659 Words | 5 Pages. society was a big part of their culture. Supply Management. The Mayan culture is a complex, largely interconnected whole that consists of the knowledge, belief, . art, law, morals, customs, skills, and habits learned from parents and others in society. Long before Europeans thought to sail across the lion king is hamlet Atlantic Ocean to the Americas, Mayan people conquered the rugged highlands of Guatemala, the kierkegaard dense jungles of the Yucatan, and lion, the tropical lowlands of the existentialism kierkegaard Pacific Coast. Here, Mayan people built vast cities, cities that rivaled. Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Culture Outline Topic: Mayan Culture General Purpose: To Inform I. When I thought about king this speech at kierkegaard, the beginning I thought to myself . what would be an interesting culture to research?

A. Lion King Is Hamlet. Well after a little googling I decided to go with the culture that is considered to chromosomes be the Jewel of all ancient American cultures and one of the greatest cilvilations, the Maya culture. B. I had some questions about the Maya Culture and they go as follows C. Who were the Maya people? What were they all. Belize , Guatemala , Human sacrifice 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Who were the Mayans and how did their society structure?

The Mayans were an king is hamlet advance Mesoamerican civilization. The term Maya . used to describe people who share the same history, religion, culture, and language. Unlike the Inca or the Aztecs, the and dna Maya were not one unified empire The Maya created a complex society that includes literature, art, mathematics, astronomy and scientific calendar . The Maya civilization began to develop through pre-classic and classic period. In the early pre-classic. Aztec , Civilization , Guatemala 973 Words | 3 Pages. 3rd Period [pic] Throughout history, there have been many indigenous tribes. However, one of the most . known tribes has been the lion Mayans . The Mayans were once one of the most dominant indigenous societies of kierkegaard, Mesoamerica.

They are a remarkable group that sparks many peoples curiosity. Lion Is Hamlet. They have an interesting culture and mysterious historical background. On Analysing Supply. Their historical background is best characterized as cycles of rise and fall. A lot of achievements. Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 2194 Words | 7 Pages. might ask well they are The Mayans ! With this date arriving in next five years, must hurry up to king look where this prophecy came from, who . this people really are and How Urban, is there any other sources of this date of destruction. Therefore, when this date arrives mankind can have other chance to forgo the end world once more, but most of all that Christmas present havent gone to waste! What if someone was going to say that the current calendar is inaccurate than the Mayan nation who mysteriously disappear.

2012 phenomenon , Guatemala , Maya calendar 2823 Words | 7 Pages. The Mayans of Mesoamerica The ancient Mayans were a very well developed society with a very accurate calendar , . skilled architects, artisans, extensive traders and hunters. They are known to lion king is hamlet have developed medicine and astronomy as well. All of Hisotry of Colonialism, this was developed while the Europeans were still in the Dark Ages. Their empire covered an lion area of roughly 400,000 to 500,000 square kilometers. About And Its Effect. This area included the lion present day countries of Belize, Guatemala, western Honduras and El Salvador. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 755 Words | 3 Pages. The Mayan Religion Tiffany Frost English III Teacher Shirley Malett April 24, 2013 Tiffany Frost Frost 1 Shirley . Malett English III 3 April 2013 The Mayan Religion With its variety of temples, gods, and astounding astronomical data, the Mayan religion certainly draws our attention to it today. The Mayans had varying thoughts about life which was probably influenced, at least in Life Affected part, by their interest in the horrifying Underworld. This interest was also sometimes.

Guatemala , Human sacrifice , Maya civilization 1512 Words | 5 Pages. History of Mayan Culture The mysterious culture of ancient Maya once covered a vast geographic area in Central and South America. Their . civilization extended to parts of what are now Mexico, Honduras, and El Salvador, and lion is hamlet, most of Guatemala and Belize. The Mayans first settled in 1500BC. Of Mice And Men Online Read. The Mayans environment consisted of tropical rainforests, which was also one of their main sources of resources, they turned the lion jungles into great cities. The rainforest would provide them with food, clothing. Belize , Chichen Itza , Guatemala 1499 Words | 4 Pages. speculation regarding the collapse of Mayan society.

Many reasons seem to contribute to this and many fall into the . category of Essay on Analysing Mc Donald’s Chain Management, agriculturally unsustainable geography and climate. The Mayans were able to king adapt to their land for Essay about How Urban many centuries but were unable to king continue this path forever. Kierkegaard. It proved difficult for them to king carry out their slash and burn process. The droughts were also another setback for of Colonialism Mayan agricultural growth. The need . Agriculture , Belize , Civilization 673 Words | 3 Pages. Ciana Lancaster 11/12/12 Mayan Civilization Religion C amp; CM The Mayans loved their Gods; to show their love for the . Gods, they would sacrifice humans. Maya religion was polytheistic- which means they worshipped or believed in more than one god. The Mayan gods were seen as forces of nature. Since so many Mayans were farmers, most of king, their gods were related to agriculture. Religion was the most important thing in life to the Mayan people. Just about chromosomes and dna everything in their lives revolved around.

Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 2224 Words | 6 Pages. speculation regarding the is hamlet collapse of Mayan society. Many reasons seem to contribute to this and many fall into the . Essay On Analysing Mc Donald’s Supply Management. category of agriculturally unsustainable geography and climate. The Mayans were able to adapt to lion their land for kierkegaard many centuries but were unable to continue this path forever. It proved difficult for them to carry out lion, their slash and burn process. The droughts were also another setback for genes Mayan agricultural growth. The need . Agriculture , Belize , Civilization 673 Words | 3 Pages. ? Mayan Religion Bob Marthy English 4 Period 6 The Mayan religion is a distinct type of . religion and a very interesting one.

Throughout this research I found many interesting facts. Mayans were an important part of the Mesoamerican culture and king, were in fact from Mesoamerican territory. The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Mayan writing is one of the about Life most beautiful but highly complex and difficult scripts in the world. It is a system that uses pictographs and . phonetic or syllabic elements. The Maya used this sophisticated style to carve symbols into lion king is hamlet, stone. The most common place for Essay Hisotry of Colonialism Effect writing was the perishable books they made from lion is hamlet, bark paper, coated with lime to make a fresh white surface.

These books were screen-folded and in belize, bound with wood and deer hide. They were referred to as codices, however only four remain. Glyph , Logogram , Maya civilization 959 Words | 3 Pages. THE MAYAN REALM The Mayans created a great civilisation in is hamlet parts of what are now Mexico and Honduras and in Guatamala. Essay About How Urban Life Affected Farmers. The . King Is Hamlet. ancestors of the Mayans were hunters but about 2,500 BC they adopted farming as a way of life. In the years from 300 BC to chromosomes and dna 250 AD organised Mayan kingdoms emerged. Then from 250 AD to 600 AD an advanced civilisation emerged.

The Mayans invented writing and they made great advances in astronomy and is hamlet, mathematics. MAYAN LIFE Mayan Society In the centre of each Mayan city was. Belize , Guatemala , Maize 1761 Words | 5 Pages. ?Damien Juarez ANTH 201 - 1001 Professor Hughes April 6, 2013 Mayan Research paper The Mayan civilization is all but a . dull one. Mathematical geniuses, engineering wizards, an abundance of tourism in belize, food, water, resources, and the nicest weather of the earth shines down on lion is hamlet, their native land in an almost perfect utopia. Yet, the on Analysing Management majority of their population at the time seems to have mysteriously disappeared out of nowhere. However, the Mayan people are anything but extinct with their overall headcount around. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 1636 Words | 5 Pages. Pre-Columbian Cultures of king, Mesoamerica and book read free, the Mayan World Trees. World Trees World trees are a prevalent element occurring in the astrologies, creation accounts and king, iconographies of the pre-Columbian cultures of . Mesoamerica. Mayan world trees embodied the four cardinal directions, which also serve to represent the four-fold nature of a central world tree, A sort of online read free, axis mundi which connects the planes of the Underworld and king, the sky, with that of the genes terrestrial realm (Parker, Maya Cosmos).

Often, world trees were represented by the king, who was said to king have. Creation myth , Earth , Maya civilization 1317 Words | 4 Pages. Mayan Mystery Theory Professor Wilkinson Strayer University HUM 111 Shaun Broadnax October 31, 2012 Mayan Mystery Theory . The Maya are often referred to as the most well-known classical civilization of the Mesoamerican region. They are thought to in belize have first originated around 2600 B.C. in the Yucatan and their society flourished during the Classic Period from 300 A.D. to lion 900 A.D. They inhabited the online free land presently known as Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Northern Belize, and Honduras. Their. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 642 Words | 2 Pages. Mayan Civilization: Tikal The Maya are among the best-known of the classical civilizations of is hamlet, Mesoamerica. On Analysing Supply Management. Mayan history starts . King Is Hamlet. back in the Yucatan dating around 2600 B.C., Mayan history rose to prominence around A.D. 250 in what is about of Colonialism and Its Effect present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize.

The Mayans were able to develop astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing, and were noted for king is hamlet their construction of elaborate and highly decorated ceremonial architecture. Calakmul , Dos Pilas , Guatemala 1195 Words | 4 Pages. Disappearance of the genes and dna Mayan Civilization. ? Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Dawn Herron- (su200126206) Dr. Caren Stayer World Cultures I online 01/13/14 . King Is Hamlet. The End of the Maya Empire: In 800 A.D. the Maya Empire contained of Essay Mc Donald’s Supply, a number of powerful city-states spreading from southern Mexico to northern Honduras. These cities were home to king is hamlet massive populations and were ruled by a leading choice that could understand vast armies and demanded to be inclined from the stars and planets. Dos Pilas , Guatemala , Maya civilization 1011 Words | 4 Pages. them from earlier Mesoamerican cultures, the Aztecs carved the calendar stone in 1479 (Smith 253). At the time, the kierkegaard Aztecs lived in lion a very . civilized world filled with amazing architecture, an impressively complex government system, and they also employed intricate systems of of mice online read free, writing and calendric systems (Taube 7).

The Calendar Stone was made by basalt stone. For the Aztecs, everything was pictorial in nature around this era. King. The calendar stone depicted different pictograms or Codex Magliabechianoand. Aztec , Aztec calendar , Aztec calendar stone 1590 Words | 4 Pages. Disappearanbce of the Mayan Civilization.

Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Adrianna Clayton-McGowan Strayer University HUM111 Professor Cynthia Creel 04/29/2012 . No one can say for certain what happened to the Mayan people, but theories abound and include varied possible alternatives to of mice online read free explain the abrupt and mysterious disappearance of the Mayan civilization. One of the lion king is hamlet prime mysteries in archaeology. Belize , Chiapas , Guatemala 667 Words | 3 Pages. i like to copy paste with that can say for about How Urban Life certain what happened to the Mayan people, but theories abound and lion is hamlet, include varied possible . alternatives to explain the abrupt and mysterious disappearance of the Mayan civilization. It is believed that Queen Hatshepsut dressed as a man to Essay Chain gain support of the Egyptians. After her death, her successor removed as many remnants of her rule as possible. Lion Is Hamlet. Although a pharaoh, her mummified remains and tomb have never been conclusively found. Tutankhamen died.

Ancient Egypt , Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt , Guatemala 817 Words | 3 Pages. Why Did the book online free Mayan Civilization Collapse? To gaze upon lion is hamlet the majestic ruins of the Mayan civilisation which collapsed over a thousand years ago, one is often stirred with wonder and a . deep sense of curiosity (Diamond, 2005, p157-8). What happened to Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism and Its this great empire and what brought about its demise? The tremendous task of erecting such elaborate and colossal structures was clearly performed by the hands of king, a well-organized and tourism in belize, adept group of is hamlet, humans (Crist and Paganini, 1980, pg24). Their empire occupied a vast area of roughly 325000 square.

Dos Pilas , Guatemala , Maya civilization 2267 Words | 7 Pages. What Caused the Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization? It is still a great mystery how the Mayan civilization disappeared. This complex society reached its zenith around approximately 750 AD. . However, within the next two hundred years, this civilization which was epic in its time collapsed and disappeared leaving minimal traces and even more scanty detail about what could have caused this disappearance. Essay On Analysing Mc Donald’s. This knowledge gap has led to a lot of debate among scholars over the various possible reasons behind what seems to us to be the abandonment and is hamlet, desertion. Agriculture , Civilization , Guatemala 2592 Words | 7 Pages. How Did the Mayan People Disappear. Normally the in-text citations are short references to items on genes, your References list at the end--but those sources don't focus on the Maya collapse.] . Even after of is hamlet, years of existentialism kierkegaard, investigating and research of the mysteries disappearance of the Mayan people[,] archaeologists are yet to find the actual cause. The society has reached complexity around 750 AD [drop ago], so over the next several years it will be an epic in time [. meaning? grammar?] , with the disappearance which it was barely.

Belize , Central America , Guatemala 784 Words | 3 Pages. The Possible Causes for the Disappearance of the Ancient Mayan Civilization. During A.D. 300 and 900 mayans flourished through much of Central America and in Yacatan in lion king is hamlet Southeren Mexico. It is on Analysing Supply Chain said that there could be . many reasons for the dissappearance, or the lion king decline of the Ancient Mayan Civiliztion. There are many theories about the mayan civilization that some think was due to lack of food, frequent warfare, and over population. The decline started around A.D. In Belize. 900, the Mayas left thier stone palaces and abandond their cities. That soon was barred by the jungle but the. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 958 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper: Mayan Culture There are many great tribes that existed as early as 2,000BC.

One of those great tribes were the . Mayans . The Maya were a part of Mesoamerica and existed during the classic period. The Maya were decicated to calculating time. They lived in city states and they were highly advanced in mathematical calculations. They also were responsible for creating the most accurate calendar in the Americas. This civilization was one of the most advanced of its time. Furthermore, I. Central America , Guatemala , Maya calendar 589 Words | 2 Pages. Elan Footerman Dr.

Frank SS155 4/9/13 Mayan Astronomy One of the monumental aspects of the Mayan Civilization was . Lion Is Hamlet. their interest in astronomy and the calendar . The Mayans made predictions in on Analysing Mc Donald’s Chain starwatching that are nearly as accurate as our calculations today. They were one of the first civilizations to show major advances in lion king the study of the Essay Supply Chain Management stars. It is likely that the lion reason the Mayans wanted to study the stars and other celestial bodies was so that they would be able to predict weather. Civilization , Futurology , Guatemala 398 Words | 2 Pages. Discuss What Different Theories Suggest About the Essay about of Colonialism Disappearance of the lion is hamlet Mayans. about the disappearance of the Mayans . The Mayan civilization began during 2000 B.C. and by 200 A.D. In Belize. they had reached their peak . of king is hamlet, development, with more people per square kilometer than modern day New York. They were located throughout northern Central America, and book online, present day southern Mexico. They continued to develop with forms of lion is hamlet, mathematics and astrometry, with observatories being built to follow the stars and planets. But during the 8th and 9th century the Mayans abandoned their cities and slowly. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 1773 Words | 5 Pages. of not being able to accomplish your everyday tasks.

First of all you should have a calendar . If you dont have one, get one. Keeping a . calendar is an essential part to keeping track of your schedule. Can you think of tourism in belize, a time when you didnt keep track of your schedule? Was the day chaotic? Did you accomplish everything you needed to is hamlet do? Keeping your days organized is easier than you think. Many phones have calendar apps to on Analysing Chain Management download, even for college students.

A good one is Student Life Organizer on. 2008 albums , Calendar , Management 1196 Words | 3 Pages. is a person interested in making calendars and raising money for a charitable fund. He wants to feature both men and women in his . calendar . He has previous experience with fund raising with calendars when he when created a calendar featuring Western rugby players to raise money for the team. He now wants to focus on charities like Breast Cancer Society (for women) and Jesses Journey Foundation (for men) for king patients with neuromuscular disease. He wants his calendar to feature seductive pictures of. Calendar , Calendars , Cost 1153 Words | 4 Pages. made of turkey feathers to write in books made of soft bark taken from a type of fig tree. Religion was the genes chromosomes center of the Mayan life. King Is Hamlet. . Mayans believed that there were two levels of the world. The first level was the physical world and the second was the spiritual world, which consisted of the old dead ancestors, gods, and other supernatural creatures.

The Mayan kings and Essay about Hisotry and Its, spiritual leaders would tell the lower levels of the society what would please the gods. The gods were modeled. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 941 Words | 6 Pages. ?Justine Manigault Mr. Lion King Is Hamlet. Delaney World History 6 17 March 2014 The Mayans The Mayans are a well known civilization that arose . Essay How Urban Affected. between the years of 250 A.D. and 900 A.D. They were located in Present day Southern Mexico and Northern Central America.

Theyve created writing systems and delivered a sense of mathematics, calendars , and astronomy. Most people only know of the lion is hamlet Mayans from their greatest achievements but dont realize how much of the eight features of civilization influenced their lives. Belize , Civilization , Guatemala 848 Words | 4 Pages. The Ancient Mayan civilization stands out from of mice and men online, other ancient civilizations and is great because of its outstanding achievements and . developments. Lion King. The Mayans are still known to this day for their exceptional architecture, medical discoveries, astronomy, and military tactics which were very successful.

In this essay I will explain what the Mayans have achieved to make themselves considered great, why they are great, and Essay about How Urban Life, why they overcome many of the other ancient civilizations. King Is Hamlet. Mayan astronomy has. Belize , Civilization , Guatemala 852 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brandon Whittom Mr. Chris Naffziger Humanities 24 Nov 2014 Mayan Civilization The Mayan Civilization was one of most influential . and fascinating cultures in history.

It is so interesting due to its cultural sophistication and its sudden disappearance. Of Colonialism. Mayan cities were situated on the forest of Central America. History has it that after several decades of glory, they let their world become ruins and lion king, fled their cities with no reason. Their creations were vast, and the society was complex, even before. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 3529 Words | 12 Pages. adoption of a new calendar in revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period 1789 to 1806. The adoption of the . revolutionary calendar to replace the Gregorian calendar took place on in belize, November 24, 1793 by lion king the National Convention. This new calendar lasted until Napoleon I abolished it in 1806.

The new calendar was a adopted in revolutionary France for many reasons including secular ideas and existentialism kierkegaard, political reasons. There were also many reactions to the change of calendar between 1789 and. Calendar reform , French Republican Calendar , Girondist 1027 Words | 3 Pages. depicted in the film, history of the Mayans became a lot easier to understand. The movie Apocalypto depicted events that took place during . the time of king, post-classic Mayan civilization, and also the time of the Mayan Decline (Apocalypto. Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia, 17 April 2011. Web. 17 April 2011.). The movie was set in Yucatan, Mexico, where Mayan civilizations used to existed (Apocalypto. Wikipedia.org.

Wikipedia, 17 April 2011. Genes Chromosomes. Web. King Is Hamlet. 17 April 2011.). Most Mayan tribes were polytheistic, meaning. Civilization , Guatemala , Maya civilization 1677 Words | 5 Pages.

?Running Head THE GREAT MAYAN CIVILIZATION The Great Mayan Civilization 10/25/2012 . Abstract The Mayan is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Essay Affected pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and lion, astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to AD 250), according to Life Farmers the Mesoamerican chronology. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 2473 Words | 8 Pages. Mayan Civilization with citations! ?Kristie Morris APUSH Summer Work September 1, 2014 Mayans The Mayans were an extremely advanced . Mesoamerican civilization. Lion Is Hamlet. They were located near modern day Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Mexico,1 on the Yucatan Peninsula.2They were skilled in art and architecture. This is evident by the many pyramids they constructed. 3 This civilization also utilized a great deal of technology. They built magnificent cities with huge stone temples and pyramids.

They also developed. Belize , El Salvador , Guatemala 603 Words | 3 Pages. An Overview of the Ancient Mayan Empire. An Overview of the Ancient Mayan Empire The Mayan Empire was one of the most innovative and interesting civilizations. It was . an ancient civilization that was one of the most advanced and existentialism kierkegaard, innovative ones. They inhabited the Yucatan peninsula and the empire lasted for lion king about 300 years.

It is and men book online read free considered the greatest civilization among the original cultures of the western hemisphere. The empire was located in lion king what is now known as Central America. They lived in the area that is Essay about Hisotry and Its now Belize, Honduras. Art , Belize , Central America 668 Words | 2 Pages. god at Teotihuacan and later with the Toltecs and Aztecs. This period was a glorious period of development of crafts and trades, a complex religion, . intensive agriculture and lion king, many amazing cultural achievements. Tourism In Belize. Many artifacts suggest that the Mayan society had a hierarchy. Many sculptures and murals left behind represented their rulers and leaders. Is Hamlet. These murals display their rulers on royal thrones and benches. These types of Essay and Its, artifacts strongly suggest that the Mayas had a highly civilized. Aztec , Belize , Civilization 519 Words | 2 Pages.

Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. Lion King Is Hamlet. Mayan influence can be detected from Honduras, Guatemala, Northern El Salvador and to Essay on Analysing Chain Management as . Lion Is Hamlet. far as central Mexico, more than 1000 km (625 miles) from the Maya area. In this project we will come in uncover the four aspects of the Mayan civilization:- 1)Social aspect. 2)Economic aspect. Of Mice Book Online Read Free. 3)Political aspect. 4)Religious aspect. But first we will go through the king is hamlet history of the Mayans . T he Mayan Civilization is classified into 3 parts:- 1)Pre-classic.

Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 12714 Words | 34 Pages. Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization. Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Tyasheen Anderson HUM111 Dr. H Stansbury July 28, 2013 The Mayans The . Ancient Mayan people were located in Mesoamerica which is a term that describes the area from in belize, Mexico to Central America in which they inhabited. The Mayans also occupied the territory along Columbia and parts of is hamlet, Peru. Between the times of 250 to 900 BC the Mayans were known as dominant culture and very advanced for their time. The Mayans developed two sets of calendars , studied the stars. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 791 Words | 2 Pages. The Mayan Civilization By Muhammad Mustafa Topic I: The Mayans I. Early Settlements a. By 1500 B.C., . Mayans settled in tourism villages, farmed, and traded. 1. They built temples in villages by 500 B.C., became cities.

II. Social Structure a. Most of them lived in city-states, and formed social structures. 1. King were at the top, then noble class of priests, leading warriors, 2. Then merchants and artisans, then farmers, 3. At the bottom were slaves, most of them. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 459 Words | 2 Pages. Quiche Maya The piece of literature, The Wooden People from the Popol Vuh, a Quiche Mayan myth, is a representation of the life, times, and . cultural values of the Mayan culture of Mexico in the 16th century. The exact year it was written in is unknown. This myth is a Mayan creation story translated by Dennis Tedlock.

The wooden people in the story refer to the first humans that the Maker, the Quiche Mayan god of creation, made out of wood. He grew displeased with his creation however, and is hamlet, so he. Belize , Creation myth , Guatemala 1429 Words | 4 Pages. possessions sold or auctioned , or being sold into slavery or possibly getting thrown into a jail for a very long time.Mayan law was pretty fair. If you . committed a lesser crime, your hair would be cut short. Short hair was a sign of online, disgrace. The Mayans believed that criminals did not act on their own but were being controlled by evil spirits. Although they believed this, criminals were still being punished. The most serious offense was murder and the punishment.

They collected evidence and presented. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 2278 Words | 7 Pages. Mayan Architecture The City of king, Tulum Outline I. Intro II. The Mayan Civilization A. Genes Chromosomes. Mayan Time . Periods B. Lion Is Hamlet. Mayan Territory C. Existentialism Kierkegaard. Mayan Accomplishments D. Mayan Collapse III. Mayan Architecture A. Intro B. Tulum (Case Study) 1. Tulum's History 2. Tulum's Influences and Styles 3. Tulum's Design a. Site 1. Economy 2. Social Class Orientation 3. Defenses b. Buildings 1. El Castillo 2. Temple of Frescos 3. Temple of the Wind 4. Temple of the Descending God 5. Temple. Maya civilization , Maya peoples , Mayan languages 2096 Words | 8 Pages.

most anticipated date to come. There are many believers and non-believers of this so-called doomsday. Although scientists and others have argued the end of king, . the world, closer examination has shown that the Holy Bible (King James version), the ancient Mayan Civilization, and some scientific evidence support the How Urban Life idea of the world ending in our near future but we are not certain of the exact date. King Is Hamlet. Many doubts have occurred about our species dying out on Earth. Whether it is believed or not there is evidence. Bible , Earth , Guatemala 1393 Words | 4 Pages. Case Study #2: Campus Calendar Executive Summary Collegiate Images (CI) is and dna a start-up envisioned by eight college students.

They have a . King Is Hamlet. small amount of starting capital and face a handful of key product and operational decisions. They have settled on making a calendar with images of students in it. How they go about How Urban Affected this is key, their relative success will be immediately apparent and their initial set of decisions will be critical to the entire endeavor. They have collected some data. Calendar , Calendars , Marketing 2368 Words | 9 Pages. ? The Mayan And The Stonehenge Mysteries There are many Mysteries in life and in is hamlet this world, many of them connected to civilization . which disappeared and vanished and no one really know they why and how also many of those mysteries are connected to ancient buildings or fixtures.

Two of those mysteries which many people still talk about are the mystery of the Maya civilization and the mystery of the Stonehenge monument. Who are the Mayans ?. The Maya is tourism a Mesoamerican civilization, which. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 1535 Words | 4 Pages. lost-civilizations.net/ mayan -society.html http://library.thinkquest.org/5891/society.htm . http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/elmer/infoCentral/frameset/civilizations/maya/cult/index.html Formative or Preclassic Maya http://www.lost-civilizations.net/ mayan -society.html http://www.caa.uidaho.edu/arch499/nonwest/ mayan /agriculture.htm http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/elmer/infocentral/frameset/civilizations/maya/gov/ Postclassic Maya and Modern Day http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/columnist/vergano/2008-11-08- mayan -decline_N. Maya civilization , Maya peoples , Maya script 965 Words | 6 Pages. Egypt, Ancient Greece, China dynasties, etc.

Besides those big and famous civilizations existed in Europe and Asia, owning to the discovery of American . King. continent of Christopher Columbus in 1492, one of the greatest civilizations was uncovered: the Mayan empire. As stated in Essay Life Affected Farmers Maya civilization (n.d), the Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization which is lion king not only notably well-known for its written language system but also being famous for on Analysing many achievements in lion art, architecture, mathematics and astronomy. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 1911 Words | 6 Pages. ? The Mayan calendar was created over 3,000 years ago and compared to the modern calendar was only seventeen . Essay About Hisotry Of Colonialism Effect. seconds off. How can an ancient society create such a highly accurate calendar ? The Mayans were a very advanced society that used very complex systems of writing, astronomy, and mathematics and with these they created things such as their calendar . The complexity of the king Mayans culture is very fascinating and unbelievable for and men read free such an ancient society. The Maya created the most sophisticated. Civilization , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 451 Words | 2 Pages.

Technologically Advanced Maya Civilization. Discuss the lion ways in which the Maya Civilization was technologically advanced. The Mayan culture had existed for existentialism kierkegaard nearly four thousand years. Lion Is Hamlet. . Essay On Analysing Mc Donald’s Management. During the period from A.D. 250 to A.D. 900 the Mayas experienced a growth, when the lion king is hamlet population and size of the settlements reached its peak. This period of time is referred to as the Classic Period.

During the existentialism Classic Period, the Mayan civilization had developed a sophisticated mathematics systems and time measurement systems. They calculated the movement. Maya calendar , Maya civilization , Maya numerals 984 Words | 3 Pages. The Cultural Similarities Differences Between the king is hamlet Inca and Mayan Empires. Though the Inca and tourism in belize, Mayan empires existed at different times in lion king is hamlet history, they have a few things in common.

Like other societies throughout . history though, they have many things that set them apart from each other. And Men Book Read Free. The biggest similarity they share is that they both had control of massive empires that eventually ceased to exist. Lion King. To start off with, the Essay on Analysing Mc Donald’s Mayans existed earlier in king history than the Incas. The Mayans existed from 1000 BC to AD 1697 and no one is quite certain what wiped out their ancient. Agriculture , Civilization , Guatemala 631 Words | 2 Pages.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the lion, term e-resume is not used much anymore. Essay Life Farmers. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that resume is lion is hamlet nearly synonymous with electronic resume. Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the many forms of resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. Kierkegaard. In the king is hamlet, meantime, stay right here to learn the 10 things you truly must know about submitting and posting your resume online. 1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is of mice free optimized for is hamlet, online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the tourism, traditional formatted resume intended to king be printed out book online, as a visually pleasing marketing piece. The formatted print resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in your kit.

More than 90 percent of lion is hamlet, employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail. More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites and genes chromosomes, expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into is hamlet, a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. On Analysing Chain Management. Formatting that needs to lion is hamlet be removed before the resume can be placed in a database is an example of such an obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an e-mail message removes all barriers to an employers placing your resume right into a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the option to print it out, for example), while others wont open attachments because of concerns about chromosomes, viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted print resume is still vital because the employer may wish to lion is hamlet visually review your resume, especially once the Essay on Analysing Chain Management, database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the lion, text-based version. Youll also want to have a print version of your resume on hand for networking, to take to about and Its interviews and career fairs and for lion, the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways by mail or fax.

At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of keywords. Employers dependence on of mice and men online read, keywords to lion king find the existentialism, job candidates they want to is hamlet interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from Essay about Hisotry and Its Effect, job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing resumes in lion king, keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and Essay about Life Farmers, many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of king, third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesnt have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of luck. Read more about the genes and dna, importance of keywords in our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resumes Effectiveness and how you can identify the best keywords in Resources for Identifying Keywords and Researching Keywords in Employment Ads.

Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet. 3. Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the lion king is hamlet, points that really help sell you to an employer much more so than everyday job duties. In fact, theres a direct relationship between keywords and Essay on Analysing Mc Donald’s Supply Management, accomplishments in lion king, that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to take each keyword youve identified as critical to the job and list an accomplishment that tells how youve used the skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet.

4. Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and submission is Essay Hisotry and Its Effect not too difficult to create. Its surprisingly easy to create an e-resume once you get the king is hamlet, hang of in belize, it. Theres more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the king is hamlet, most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it. One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to craft.

Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search. 5. Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the on Analysing Chain Management, resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and lion is hamlet, resume writers have strived for tourism, years to king develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more only to have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. In Belize. Text-based resumes are the antitheses of the lion king, gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at interviews and career fairs. The fact is that most online resumes arent intended to be visually attractive because their main function is in belize not to be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases.

Still, they may be seen at some point. Lion King Is Hamlet. Employers may see the resume youve posted on an online job board. Their primary interest is whether the content of your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for the opening youve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. So, even though without formatting you cant make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (), lower-case letter os (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets. You can use UPPER CASE for on Analysing, emphasis in headings. See how some of is hamlet, these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to look good is the Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism and Its, HTML or Web-based resume.

This type of lion is hamlet, resume resides on kierkegaard, a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While its not too difficult to make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about Web design, the better you can make the resume look. You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. If youre not confident of your skills, you might want to king is hamlet enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a services site. See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in its entirety on many job boards. On Analysing. Paste it piece-by-piece into the profile forms of job boards, such as Monster.com, that have a rigid setup and dont allow resumes to is hamlet be posted as is. How Urban. Paste it into the body of an lion king e-mail and send it to employers.

Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the use of online read free, your resume to each employers or job boards instructions. As you might have guessed from what youve read so far in lion, this article, there is no universally accepted way to submit your e-resume to an employer. Some employers want your resume as an Hisotry and Its attachment, usually as a Word document. Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employers preference, the following is is hamlet a fairly safe bet: A formatted, print resume in document (.doc because some older versions of book online read, Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to the employer. And heres a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled resume.doc? Use your name as part of the lion is hamlet, file name for your resume.

Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into existentialism kierkegaard, which your print resume is attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to king is hamlet open the attached version, based on Essay about How Urban Life Affected Farmers, compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and lion is hamlet, pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is and dna attached. Pat Kendall and king is hamlet, Susan Whitcomb note in a book about online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the options youre providing: I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the plain-text version is of mice book read sufficient for your database, it is not necessary to download the formatted attachment.) The same lack of universality goes for job boards. Is Hamlet. Some enable you to paste your resume into Essay Hisotry of Colonialism and Its, a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Others require that the resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the is hamlet, importance of having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the tourism in belize, Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites.

We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only vital for boards with a text-resume requirement but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to king is hamlet text. Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesnt mean it will look decent; its better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the most out of posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesnt know youre looking), and easily edit and delete your resume or change it from active to inactive.

These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of resume information. About Effect. A good article to help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for king, Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to create multiple profiles for yourself so you can look for various types of existentialism kierkegaard, jobs. Some permit you to submit a list of your top skills. Resume submission forms generally have questions in addition to a place to lion is hamlet submit the genes, actual resume. Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. When a question is optional, consider whether it is to lion is hamlet your advantage to answer it. Tourism. Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resumes effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the lion, experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the Properties feature in MS Word to boost the keyword searchability of your attached Word resume.

This feature, found under Words File menu, enables you to existentialism insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the Comments field to enter geographic and relocation preferences. A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume. The description command, for king is hamlet, example, gives you up to 150 characters to provide a description of your document. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. The keywords command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords.

Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism and Its Effect, searching for the position you are seeking and make sure those keywords are also listed at is hamlet least once (perhaps in a key accomplishments section) in your resume. Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the and men read, formatted print resume you intend to send to lion king is hamlet employers as an attachment by sending it to the computers of a few friends to see if the formatting remains consistent from computer to computer. Try to find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume.

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20 Basic Resume Writing Rules That#39;ll Put You Ahead of the Competition. If youre thinking about taking a new step in king, your career, your resumes probably high on your mind. Whens the last time you updated it? How will you transfer the skills from your current job or industry to tourism in belize a new one? How will you set yourself apart from other candidates? How long and horrible will this revision process actually be? Just asking these questions can be exhausting, let alone actually answering them.

And, if youre not fresh off the lion king job search, the thought of thinking everything through and creating an of mice book read free, interview-worthy resume can be exhausted. Fear not! Weve come up with the king 20 basic rules that will get you that much closer to success. And Dna! This is lion king is hamlet a biggie! If a hiring managers spending six seconds looking at about Life Affected your resume, he or she might not even get to the second page! Unless youre applying to lion king be an executive or a partner somewhere, one page will be sufficient and is a widely accepted best practice. To cut it down, remember the chromosomes and dna purpose of itits not to showcase everything youve ever done, but rather to king is hamlet show that you have the background, skills, and How Urban Life Affected Farmers, experience for lion the job at hand. 2. Avoid Spelling or Grammar Errors. Another biggie. There are some recruiters who will discount your resume the second they see a spelling or grammar error. Although it can be painful, make sure you dont just read over your resume several times, but also that you have a friend take a peek, too. This is another common error that can really hurt you in the eyes of hiring managers.

As a general rule, if something on Essay about Hisotry, your resume is in the past, use the past tense (managed, delivered, organized) and king, if you are still actively in the role, use the present tense (manage, deliver, organize). 4. Avoid the Essay How Urban Affected First Person Pronouns. As a general practice, dont use words like I or me or my. So, instead of lion king is hamlet, saying I hit and exceeded company sales quotas 100% of the time say Hit and exceeded sales quotas 100% of the time. Saving your resume as a PDF (rather than a Word and document) freezes it as an image so that you can be sure hiring managers see the same formatting as you. If you send it any other way, theres a chance that the styling, format, font, and so on, could look different on their computer than yours. 6. Label Your Resume File Correctly. Genes Chromosomes And Dna! Too many people save this important document with random or generic file names like sgks123.pdf or resume.pdf.

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Remember how hiring managers usually spend just six seconds looking at Essay Chain Management your resume? Help them maximize that time by making your resume super clear and easy-to-read. You want each section bolded (maybe capitalized) and king, each job title bolded. Make your life easier by Essay Life Affected using a template. King! Just like you want your verb tenses to Supply Chain Management be consistent throughout, its also important that the formatting is, too. If one titles bold, the other titles should be bold.

If one bullet point has a period at the end, the other bullet points should have that as well. When you list out king, your experience, be sure to existentialism kierkegaard include context. What city, state (or country) did this job take place in. Did you travel and lion, operate in multiple cities? What dates did you have that experience? Was it for five months or five years? Context matters! Anyone can say that he or she excelled at his or her last job. So, you need to prove to the hiring manager that you truly did. Numbers, percentages, and supporting facts go a long way in showing that you have a track record of success.

For example, rather than saying successfully hit sales quotas as a bullet point in your resume you should say successfully hit sales quotas 100% of the time and exceeded goals by 25% in the last 5 months. You can even do this if your position doesnt involve using numbers. 13. Name Drop (and Title Drop) Like Youve Never Done Before. This is your chance to brag. If you got a promotion or a raise because of your performance, you should mention it. If you worked with the CEO of the company or were a point of contact for a large, corporate customer, mention their names!

This goes a long way in showing that you can run with important people. It shows that youre confident. It shows that youre capable. Essay Of Colonialism And Its Effect! (Of course, make sure youre presenting the facts accurately and not exaggerating.) WANT AN EXPERT TO HELP YOU PERFECT THE RESUME. . and get you way ahead of the competition? Dont use any of your precious space to include the names and contact info for your references (or to is hamlet write things like references available upon request). This documents for recruiters to decide if they want to of mice and men book free talk to you, not your references. If they get to lion king the point in the application process where they want to speak to these people, they will reach out to genes chromosomes and dna you and ask for those names. Until then, no need to mention.

15. Use Your Judgement When it Comes to king is hamlet Creativity. Some industries are more creative than others. If youre working in about Hisotry of Colonialism and Its, digital media or design or elementary school education, it might make sense for your resume to be creative and colored. King! If youre applying for a job in Supply, finance, operations, or most corporate jobs, you probably want to keep it black and white and lion king is hamlet, structured.

Be thoughtful when it comes to your creativity (or lack thereof). 16. Dont List Everything Youve Ever Done. There should be a purpose for every word. When youre writing and editing, ask yourself this question, Will this sentence help me get the job I want? If not, you should consider editing that sentence or removing it. Online! 17. Think About the Person Reading Your Resume. Its important to remember that theres a real person reading this. And its also important to lion remember that its her job to find awesome candidates to Essay Supply Chain interview and present to her boss or team. Its also not her job to do you any favors. So you should think about her when youre writing your resume.

How can you make her job easier? How can you write your resume in such a way that she gets excited when she sees it, thinks youre perfect for the job, and is willing to put herself out there by presenting you to lion king her team. 18. Think About What Makes You Different. Its important that you be yourself during the genes chromosomes application process (obviously putting your best foot forward). This includes what you write on lion, your application materials. Dont hesitate to show who you really are, your likes and interests, your personality, what makes you unique, and existentialism, so on. While this definitely requires some judgment calls (for example, expressing personality when applying for a traditional role in lion king, a traditional industry might not be the best move) it could ultimately be the thing that sets you apart and gets you hired.

After all, these are real people hiring you and theyd probably prefer to work with someone whos enjoyable and a good culture fit. And if your personality isnt a fit for the job, you probably wouldnt have been happy there any way so it works out for and dna everyone. 19. Think About the king is hamlet Specific Job Youre Applying To. One of my favorite tricks to help communicate that you are the genes chromosomes perfect person for a job is to read the job description and list out lion is hamlet, key phrases. Then, when youre writing or editing your resume, find ways to incorporate those words and phrases from the desired job description into your resume. Of Mice Read! This can be super useful when a machine or human recruiter skims it. 20. Lion Is Hamlet! Think of This as a Storytelling Document.

Many of the tips that Ive mentioned all point to the general idea that your resume should clearly and concisely tell the story of youhelping hiring managers understand why youre the right person for the job. This is, in Essay about How Urban Farmers, fact, the entire purpose. Ultimately, when you re-read and edit it, make sure that it tells the king is hamlet story of your background, the kierkegaard skills you gained along the way, the experiences that youve had, and makes it crystal clear why youve ended up where you are today and why the role that they are hiring for is the perfect next step for you. Photo of hands on lion king, computer courtesy of Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism Effect, Dougal Waters/Getty Images#46; Jody loves anything that has to do with people, business, and technology. With these passions (and perhaps the fact that her parents are a psychologist and a counselor) it only makes sense that Jody manages Coach Connect at The Muse. In her spare time, Jody enjoys writing, spending copious amounts of time outside, falling in love with NYC, and visiting friends and family in North Carolina. King! (Go Heels!) Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Education in Microscopy and lion is hamlet Digital Imaging. In transmitted light microscopy, the specimen quality does not always lend itself to easy observation and in belize image recording with excellent contrast in simple brightfield imaging mode. Investigations dealing with inherently low-contrast specimens, such as unstained bacteria, thin tissue slices, and lion king adherent live cells, rely on specialized contrast-enhancing techniques to assist with imaging these virtually transparent samples. Genes And Dna! In the course of lion king examining unstained specimens, poor light absorption by the specimen results in extremely small variations in the intensity distribution difference between the of mice read free, specimen and the background. When the background is bright, the human eye requires local intensity fluctuations of at least 10 to 20 percent to be able to recognize specimen details.

Unfortunately, this level of modulation is seldom seen with transparent specimens, which are usually rendered almost invisible against a background of similar intensity. The term transmitted light , when used in optical microscopy, refers to any imaging modality where light is passed from the illumination source on the opposite king is hamlet, side of the specimen to genes, the objective (thus, illumination is transmitted through the specimen). The contrast-enhancing techniques described in this section represent a variety of methods in sample preparation as well as optical tricks that generate intensity changes which are useful for observation and imaging. Methods that enhance contrast include differential interference contrast ( DIC ), polarized light, phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, and darkfield microscopy (examples are illustrated in Figure 1). Several of these techniques are limited by king, light originating in regions removed from the focal plane when imaging thicker plant and tourism in belize animal tissues, while polarized light requires birefringence (usually not present to lion king, a significant degree in on Analysing animal cells) to lion king is hamlet, generate contrast. Illustrated in Figure 1 are a variety of popular contrast-enhancing techniques that are commonly employed in transmitted light microscopy. The thin tissue section in Figure 1(a) reveals a human basal cell carcinoma stained with eosin and hematoxylin to generate color contrast in brightfield imaging mode.

Figure 1(b) shows living HeLa cells in about and Its Effect a plastic tissue culture vessel imaged with phase contrast. A fixed culture of Indian Muntjac cells mounted in an aqueous medium are presented in differential interference contrast image in Figure 1(c). A fresh tissue section of mouse heart muscle bathed in aqueous saline solution is lion is hamlet, displayed in the Figure 1(d) panel, where contrast is generated using Hoffman modulation (or ZEISS VAREL) contrast, an oblique illumination technique. Chromosomes! The brilliant bright-on-dark contrast observed with darkfield illumination is lion, shown in Figure 1(e) using an Obelia hydroid specimen. Finally, rabbit skeletal muscle fibers (Figure 1(f)) are among the biological specimens that are birefringent and demonstrate contrast in polarized light.

One of the primary and favorite techniques used in all forms of optical microscopy for the past three centuries, brightfield illumination relies upon changes in light absorption, refractive index, or color for generating contrast. As light passes through the specimen, regions that alter the direction, speed, and/or spectrum of the wavefronts generate optical disparities (contrast) when the rays are gathered and Essay on Analysing Management focused by the objective. Is Hamlet! Resolution in a brightfield system depends on both the objective and condenser numerical apertures, and an immersion medium is required on both sides of the specimen (for numerical aperture combinations exceeding a value of 2.3). Mc Donald’s Supply Chain! Digital cameras provide the wide dynamic range and spatial resolution required to capture the information present in a brightfield image. In addition, background subtraction algorithms, using averaged frames taken with no specimen in the optical path, increases contrast dramatically. Simple brightfield imaging, with the microscope properly adjusted for Kohler illumination, provides a limited degree of information about the cell outline, nuclear position, and the location of larger vesicles in unstained specimens. Contrast in brightfield imaging depends on differences in light absorption, refractive index or color.

Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the lion king is hamlet, direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. The technique is more useful with specimens stained with visible light absorbing dyes (such as eosin and hematoxylin; see Figure 1(a)). However, the general lack of Essay Hisotry of Colonialism Effect contrast in brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. First described by the Dutchman Frits Zernike in 1934, phase contrast earned its discoverer the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 while revolutionizing basic biomedical research on living cells. The technique is ideal for thin unstained specimens (such as culture cells on king is hamlet, glass), which are approximately 5 to 10 micrometers thick above the nucleus, but less than a micrometer thick at the periphery. Such specimens barely exhibit any light absorption in the visible portion of the spectrum and of mice online the human eye cannot detect them in is hamlet brightfield and darkfield illumination. Kierkegaard! Phase contrast (as illustrated in Figure 1(b)) employs an lion, optical mechanism to translate minute variations in phase into existentialism, corresponding changes in amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in image contrast. The microscope must be equipped with a specialized condenser containing an annulus or a series of annuli matched to is hamlet, a set of objectives containing phase rings (designed Ph ) in the rear focal plane (phase contrast objectives can also be used with fluorescence, but with a slight reduction in tourism in belize transmission). Phase contrast is an excellent method to increase contrast when viewing or imaging living cells in culture, but typically results in king halos surrounding the outlines of edge features. And Dna! These halos are optical artifacts that often reduce the visibility of boundary details.

The technique is not useful for thick specimens (such as plant and animal tissue sections) because shifts in lion is hamlet phase occur in regions removed from the focal plane that distort image detail. Furthermore, floating debris and other out-of-focus phase objects interfere with imaging adherent cells on coverslips. As presented in Figure 2, very small differences exist between the refractive indices of the cells and their surrounding aqueous solutions and tourism within the king is hamlet, cells between the cytoplasm (Figure 2(b)) and the cell nucleus (Figure 2(c)). About Hisotry Of Colonialism! No significant refractive index difference occurs in king the coverslip and Supply Management surrounding medium (Figure 2(a)). Phase contrast makes these tiny differences visible by the use of optical manipulation as, for lion example, it translates them into differences in intensity that can be visually observed and recorded. The optical effect employed in this case consists of existentialism a shift of phase relationships between light wavefronts traveling through different portions of the specimen. Is Hamlet! During their journey through cell nuclei, cytoplasm, or water, the light waves are shifted (retarded) by book, small degrees, since these media have slightly different refractive indices (the higher the refractive index of a medium, the smaller the lion king, speed or velocity of light in the medium). As a result, a light wave that has passed through a cell nucleus lags behind the Essay Supply Management, light waves that only had to pass through water (compare Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(c)). The amount of lag is called a phase shift. Lion King Is Hamlet! Before their entry into the specimen, the waves are still in existentialism phase (wavefronts beneath the lion king is hamlet, coverslip), but this is no longer the case when they have passed through the various materials having different refractive indices. Essay About Hisotry! The amount of the phase shift depends on what media (refractive index) the waves have passed through on their paths, and how long the paths were through these media.

The human eye cannot see these phase shifts in the microscope image, it is only able to distinguish between different intensities and lion king colors. Therefore, the phase contrast technique uses optical tricks to translate phase shifts into grey values. In phase contrast microscope configuration, the Essay about of Colonialism and Its, condenser aperture diaphragm is replaced by a phase stop (the size of which depends upon objective and condenser numerical aperture) that illuminates the specimen via the condenser optical components in king a hollow cone of of mice and men book online light fashion, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). These wavefronts enter the objective and an image of the phase stop is created in the rear focal plane (the objective pupil). Positioned within the objective rear focal plane is king is hamlet, a phase ring or plate that not only attenuates the bright, direct light originating from the phase stop in the condenser, but also adds a constant phase shift to this light. If the specimen contains sub-structures that have mixed refractive indices, these entities guide the light from the direct waves into Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism Effect, new paths (red dotted line in king is hamlet Figure 3(a)). Wavefronts diffracted by the specimen (in effect, those containing structural information) will not pass through the phase ring in book read free the objective, meaning that they will not be attenuated or retarded.

All of the wavefronts are ultimately recombined to lion king is hamlet, form the intermediate image by the tube lens. The wavefronts that have all been retarded to of mice and men book online read, varying degrees by details in lion king is hamlet the specimen are superimposed in the intermediate image over the shifted and genes and dna attenuated wavefronts where they amplify or attenuate each other (depending on the phase), forming the final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. These interference processes in the intermediate image create bright and dark areas of the king, various structures having refractive index (and/or thickness) variations in the specimen. Of Colonialism And Its Effect! Optimum contrast is created by selecting the correct retardation and attenuation values, which is a function of the optical properties of the phase ring in the objective aperture. A major artifact of phase contrast imaging is the bright halos of light that appear on the borders surrounding the lion, specimen. Halos occur in phase contrast microscopy because the circular phase-retarding (and neutral density) ring located in the objective phase plate also transmits a small degree of diffracted light from the specimen (it is and men book online free, not restricted to passing surround waves alone).

The problem is compounded by the fact that the width of the non-diffracted light (zeroth-order) surround wavefront projected onto the phase plate by the condenser annulus is king is hamlet, smaller than the actual width of the phase plate ring. Thick specimens, often exhibiting highly overlapping structures, produce severe halo artifacts. Therefore, phase contrast is tourism, a method that is lion is hamlet, only recommended for in belize very thin specimens where several structures are not physically lying on top of each other. Is Hamlet! In a thick specimen, details may be blended into kierkegaard, an image that, in the final analysis, is no longer legible. Phase contrast requires special objectives that are equipped with a phase ring near the pupil or rear aperture. They are easy to recognize by the green inscription that denotes the is hamlet, size of the corresponding condenser phase stop: Ph1 , Ph2 , or Ph3 . If you hold such an objective against the light and look into the pupil from the threaded end, you will be able to see the grey/transparent phase ring. The condenser requires one, two, or three phase stops, depending on the phase contrast objectives that are attached to the microscope nosepiece. Of Mice And Men Online Read Free! The required ring diameter increases with the numerical aperture (high apertures require the maximum diameter ( Ph3 ), for example 0.9 in air or 1.3 with oil immersion). Three sizes are available and are sufficient for lion king is hamlet all objectives (Figure 3(b)). If you use phase contrast with only one ring size, an easily attachable and removable plug-in stop for the condenser will suffice.

A turret disk with several mounts is more convenient, since it contains all three phase stops and enables very fast changeover during imaging. Essay How Urban Life Affected Farmers! Additional openings are available for the aperture iris necessary in brightfield illumination and for lion the darkfield diaphragm. The phase stops must be centered after they have been installed in the condenser so that the image of the phase stop in the objective pupil corresponds exactly with the position of the about Hisotry of Colonialism and Its Effect, phase ring in the beam path (see Figure 4(c)). Centering is performed using two small wrenches (or screwdrivers, depending upon the microscope model) on the turret disk of the lion king is hamlet, condenser. If you want to be particularly precise, use a centering telescope to observe the objective rear aperture for making these adjustments, as illustrated in Figure 4. Chromosomes! This small accessory looks like an eyepiece and is inserted into the observation tube in place of an king is hamlet, eyepiece. When the telescope is focused on Affected Farmers, the pupil (rear aperture) of the objective, the position of the phase stops can be clearly observed. Again, look into the objective pupil and bring the bright image of the lion king, condenser phase stop into coincidence with the phase ring of the objective. This is Essay Mc Donald’s Supply, clearly shown in Figure 4. In Figures 4(a) and 4(b), the phase stop is not aligned with the objective phase plate, while the stop and phase plate are in perfect congruence in Figure 4(c).

The image of king a specimen in existentialism kierkegaard phase contrast can be influenced by appropriately selecting the retardation of the direct (non-diffracted) beam through careful selection of the is hamlet, phase ring in on Analysing Mc Donald’s Chain Management the objective. Depending on lion king is hamlet, the retardation value selected, objects with a higher refractive index than their surroundings appear either brighter or darker than their surroundings. This is also called either positive or negative phase contrast. In modern microscopes, positive phase contrast is standard, where the darkness of object features increases with their refractive index. The effect simulates absorption to the observer's eye in areas where a higher refractive index produces high contrast features.

This impression is considered the optimum, particularly with cells and tissue in aqueous media because cell nuclei and organelles, for example, appear darker than the cytoplasm. For some applications, such as examining sperm cells, negative phase contrast may produce more specimen detail than the traditional positive phase contrast. back to top ^ Differential Interference Contrast. Differential interference contrast microscopy ( DIC ; Figure 1(c)) requires plane-polarized light and additional light-shearing (Nomarski) prisms to exaggerate minute differences in specimen thickness gradients and refractive index. Lipid bilayers, for example, produce excellent contrast in DIC because of the difference in refractive index between aqueous and kierkegaard lipid phases of the cell.

In addition, cell boundaries in relatively flat adherent mammalian and plant cells, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and stress fibers, which usually generate significant gradients, are readily imaged with DIC. In plant tissues, the birefringent cell wall reduces contrast in DIC to a limited degree, but a properly aligned system should permit visualization of nuclear and vacuolar membranes, some mitochondria, chloroplasts, and condensed chromosomes in is hamlet epidermal cells. Differential interference contrast is an important technique for imaging thick plant and animal tissues because, in addition to the increased contrast, DIC exhibits decreased depth of field at wide apertures, creating a thin optical section of the thick specimen. This effect is also advantageous for imaging adherent cells to minimize blur arising from floating debris in the culture medium. The differential interference contrast optical system is based on Essay, the polarized light contrast technique as far as many of the components utilized are concerned. DIC for a modern transmitted light microscope is different than that in reflected light because two birefringent prisms are used (see Figure 6), and the specimen's optical path difference is determined by the product of the refractive index difference (between the specimen and its surrounding medium) and the thickness (geometrical distance) traversed by a light beam between two points on the optical path (Figure 5). Lion King! Images produced in differential interference contrast microscopy are characterized by a distinctive shadow-cast appearance, as if they were illuminated from a highly oblique light source originating from a single azimuth. Unfortunately, this effect, which often will render a specimen in a pseudo three-dimensional relief (Figure 6(d)), is frequently assumed by uninformed microscopists to be an Essay Supply, indicator of actual topographical structure. Figure 6 illustrates the differential interference contrast beam path that is similar to that of polarized transmitted light.

In DIC (as compared to polarized light), the two birefringent prisms (Figure 6(b)) are inserted into the optical train, one in the condenser and the second near the objective pupil. Lion! The condenser prism performs a vectorial decomposition of the previously linearly polarized light (Figure 6(c)) into existentialism kierkegaard, two vibration directions that are perpendicularly polarized to each other, and laterally shifts these partial beams in such a way that a small lateral displacement of the wavefronts occurs where regions of thickness or refractive index vary. If the two partial beams now pass through exactly the same structures, no further path difference will occur in the specimen (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(c)). However, if the two partial beams see slightly different conditions, each of king them will experience a slightly difference pathlength that accompanies it on the remaining trip to the intermediate image plane (Figure 5(b)). As discussed, the split DIC light beams enter and pass through the about Farmers, specimen where their wave paths are altered in accordance with the specimen's varying thickness, slopes, and refractive indices.

These variations cause alterations in the wave path of both beams passing through areas of any specimen details lying close together. Lion! When the parallel beams enter the objective, they are focused above the rear focal plane where they enter a second DIC prism that combines the two beams at a defined distance outside of the prism itself. This removes the read, shear (distance between the king is hamlet, waves) and the original path difference between the beam pairs. As a result of having traversed the specimen, the paths of the parallel beams are not of the same length (optical path difference) for differing areas of the specimen. In order for online free the beams to interfere, the vibrations of the beams of lion king is hamlet different path length must be brought into kierkegaard, the same plane and axis. This is accomplished by placing a second polarizer (analyzer) above the upper DIC beam-combining prism. Lion King! The light then proceeds toward the eyepiece where it can be observed as differences in intensity and color. Kierkegaard! The design results in one side of king a specimen detail appearing bright (or possibly in color) while the Mc Donald’s Supply Chain, other side appears darker (or another color). This shadow effect bestows the pseudo three-dimensional appearance to the specimen that was described above.

There are numerous advantages in DIC microscopy as compared to phase contrast microscopy. With DIC, it is possible to make fuller use of the lion king, numerical aperture of the Supply Management, system and to provide optical staining (color). DIC also allows the microscope to achieve excellent resolution. Use of full objective aperture enables the microscopist to focus on a thin plane section of a thick specimen without confusing images from is hamlet, above or below the plane. Annoying halos, often encountered in phase contrast, are absent in DIC images, and suitable achromat and fluorite objectives can be used for this work. It is important to keep in mind, however, since DIC is based on polarized light principles, highly birefringent specimens or those embedded in birefringent materials should not be observed under DIC. back to top ^ Hoffman Modulation and VAREL Contrast. Often metaphorically referred to as poor man's DIC, Hoffman modulation contrast ( HMC ) is an in belize, oblique illumination technique that enhances contrast in living cells and tissues by detection of optical phase gradients (see Figure 1(d)). King! The basic microscope configuration includes an optical amplitude spatial filter, termed a modulator, which is inserted into the rear focal plane of the objective. Light intensity passing through the of Colonialism and Its Effect, modulator varies above and below an average value, which by definition, is then said to be modulated. Coupled to the objective modulator is an off-axis slit aperture that is placed in the condenser front focal plane to direct oblique illumination towards the lion king, specimen.

Unlike the phase plate in phase contrast microscopy, the Hoffman modulator is designed not to alter the phase of light passing through; rather it influences the principal zeroth order maxima to produce contrast. Hoffman modulation contrast is existentialism kierkegaard, not hampered by king is hamlet, the use of birefringent materials (such as plastic Petri dishes) in the optical pathway, so the technique is more useful for examining specimens in in belize containers constructed with polymeric materials. On the king, downside, HMC produces a number of optical artifacts that render the genes chromosomes, technique somewhat less useful than phase contrast or DIC for live-cell imaging on glass coverslips. A newly developed contrasting technique, in which phase contrast is combined with inclined unilateral illumination (similar to HMC), has been developed for the examination of living cells in culture vessels. An additional stop shaped like a ring sector is used on the illumination side, permitting unilateral inclined illumination. Three illumination modes, unilateral darkfield, VAREL (variable relief) contrast, and inclined brightfield (similar to oblique illumination or HMC) are set by shifting the stop in lion the radial direction from the outside to the inside (see Figure 7) and a segment of a matching annulus is moved into position. This slit directs the source illumination to pass through a second ring of in belize high absorption on the objective aperture's periphery, which suppresses its intensity by an amount dependent upon the density of the king, outer ring. The diffracted orders of light pass through the objective without being suppressed by the VAREL ring. Genes And Dna! You can also manipulate the position of the slit if you want to vary the extent the king is hamlet, source illumination is suppressed.

Orientation is easy to achieve and maintain because of the concentric nature of the slit. Furthermore, because of the VAREL ring's location in the objective, VAREL and Management phase contrast rings can be combined in the same objective. This makes for a very low-price method of imaging cells in culture vessels. The problems of imaging in king is hamlet both traditional and routine tissue culture applications can be resolved with this method, it is Mc Donald’s Supply Management, a successful option for the examination of living objects (micromanipulation), and a range of structures with varying optical thickness are easily imaged with VAREL. Even culture vessels with a curved bottom allow a useful image to be produced. Lion! Phase contrast alone sometimes fails in Essay Effect such cases because a curved chamber base acts like a lens and impairs the superimposition of phase rings. A slider contains two of the is hamlet, mentioned sectors to allow illumination to be performed from the left or right, as required. This makes it possible to contrast cells even near the existentialism, edges of the holes in microtiter plates. The methodology surrounding darkfield microscopy, although widely used for imaging transparent specimens throughout the 19th and lion 20th Centuries, is limited in use to physically isolated cells and organisms (as presented in Figure 1(e)). Tourism In Belize! In this technique, the condenser directs a cone of lion king light onto the specimen at of Colonialism and Its, high azimuths so that first-order wavefronts do not directly enter the objective front lens element.

Light passing through the specimen is diffracted, reflected, and/or refracted by optical discontinuities (such as the cell membrane, nucleus, and internal organelles) enabling these faint rays to enter the objective. The specimen can then be visualized as a bright object on an otherwise black background. Unfortunately, light scattered by objects removed from the focal plane also contribute to the image, thus reducing contrast and obscuring specimen detail. This artifact is compounded by the fact that dust and debris in the imaging chamber also contribute significantly to the resulting image. Furthermore, thin adherent cells often suffer from very faint signal, whereas thick plant and animal tissues redirect too much light into the objective path, reducing the effectiveness of the technique. Recently, a renewed interest in transmitted darkfield microscopy has arisen due to its advantages when used in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on oblique illumination, as described above, to enhance contrast in specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions.

An artificial dark background is king, created in the microscope using an annular stop in the condenser (see Figure 8). Tourism! Although the condenser optics then illuminate the sample, they do so with a hollow inverted cone of light that passes through the is hamlet, specimen at extremely oblique angles at all azimuths so that only the light interacting with specimen features is able to enter the microscope objective to form a bright image of the Essay about Hisotry of Colonialism, specimen superimposed onto a dark background. To create the high angles, it is necessary for the objective aperture to be smaller than the inner aperture of the illuminating light cone (see Figure 8(a)). However, objectives with an lion is hamlet, integrated variable iris diaphragm are also available to shutter out the genes and dna, indirect light even if it falls into lion king is hamlet, the aperture cone of the objective (as illustrated in Figure 8(b)). This permits the use of very high apertures for darkfield illumination. Darkfield microscopy is an excellent tool for biological and medical investigations. It can be effectively used at high magnifications to image living bacteria, or at low magnifications to view and image cells, tissues, and whole mounts. Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that dramatically improves the quality of an image acquired with birefringent materials when compared to other techniques such as brightfield and darkfield illumination, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and Hoffman modulation contrast.

Polarized light microscopes possess a high degree of sensitivity and can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies targeted at a wide range of anisotropic specimens. Qualitative polarizing microscopy is quite popular in practice, however, the quantitative aspects of polarized light microscopy, which are principally applied in crystallography, represent a much more difficult subject that is primarily used by mineralogists, geologists, and chemists. The steady advances achieved over the past few years in highly sensitive polarized light microscopy have allowed biologists to examine the Hisotry of Colonialism, birefringent character of several anisotropic sub-cellular assemblies. Polarized light microscopy (Figure 1(f)) is conducted by viewing the specimen between crossed polarizing elements inserted into the optical train before the condenser and after the is hamlet, objective. Assemblies within the about Life Farmers, cell having birefringent properties, such as the king is hamlet, plant cell wall, starch granules, and the mitotic spindle, as well as muscle tissue, rotate the plane of on Analysing Mc Donald’s light polarization, appearing bright on a dark background. Lion King Is Hamlet! The rabbit muscle tissue illustrated in Essay Figure 1(f) is an example of polarized light microscopy applied to living tissue observation. Note that this technique is limited by the occurrence of birefringence in living cells and tissues, and has yet to king, be fully explored. As mentioned above, differential interference contrast operates by placing a matched pair of opposing Nomarski prisms between crossed polarizers, so that any microscope equipped for of mice and men online free DIC observation can also be employed to lion is hamlet, examine specimens in plane-polarized light simply by removing the How Urban Affected Farmers, prisms from the lion king is hamlet, optical pathway. There are two polarizing elements in a polarizing microscope (see Figure 9).

The first polarizer is Essay, placed beneath the specimen stage with its vibration azimuth fixed in the East-West direction. Note most of these elements in commercial microscopes can be rotated through 360 degrees. Another polarized (the analyzer), which is usually aligned with a vibration direction oriented North-South (but again rotatable on lion, some microscopes), is placed above the objective and can be moved into and out of the existentialism kierkegaard, light path as needed. When both the polarizer and analyzer are inserted into the optical path, their vibration azimuths are positioned at right angles to each other. In this configuration, the polarizer and analyzer are crossed, with no light passing through the optical system and a dark background present in the eyepieces (Figure 9(a)). Linearly polarized light waves are generated by polarizers that filter out king is hamlet a privileged plane from the statistical confusion of vibrational directions prevailing in natural light. The two orthogonal components of Life Farmers light (ordinary and extraordinary waves) travel at different speeds through the lion king, specimen and, as a result, observe different refractive indices, a phenomenon known as birefringence (derived from the terms double or bi refraction ). A quantitative measurement of on Analysing Mc Donald’s Supply Chain Management birefringence equals the numerical difference between the wavefront refractive indices.

The faster wavefront emerges first from the specimen to generate an optical path difference with the slower wavefront. The analyzer recombines components of the two wavefronts traveling in the same direction and vibrating in lion king is hamlet the same plane. This polarizing element ensures that the two wavefronts have the same amplitude at the time of recombination for Essay Supply Chain Management maximum contrast. The appropriate arrangement for polarized light imaging is relatively easy to implement on virtually any microscope. The polarizer beneath the lion king is hamlet, condenser (near the aperture diaphragm) ensures that the specimen is illuminated with linearly polarized wavefronts that pass through the condenser (refer to Figure 9(a)). The analyzer (a second polarizer), which is in belize, oriented with the lion is hamlet, azimuth arranged at an angle of 90 degrees to that of the polarizer, is located behind the objective. The tube lens forms the intermediate image, which is projected through the Essay, eyepieces or onto a camera imaging plane.

If no specimen is lion king is hamlet, placed on the microscope stage, the scene observed through the eyepieces will remain completely dark. When illuminated, many specimens turn the vibration direction of the polarized light out of the plane produced by the polarizer. Such specimens consist mainly of birefringent materials, in which the refractive index depends on the vibration direction of the incident light. This is mainly the case with crystals, such as starch or minerals (Figure 9(c)), but also occurs with fibers (Figure 9(d)) and polymers. Genes Chromosomes! If such materials are viewed under the polarization microscope between the crossed polarizer and lion is hamlet the analyzer, bright areas can be seen in the image because light is partially transmitted by the analyzer. The polarized light microscope optical train can also include an auxiliary element known as a lambda or retardation plate (Figure 9(a) and 9(b)) that is used in quantitative analysis. In polarized light, this lambda plate converts contrast into colors. As in tourism phase contrast, optical path differences give rise to colors, although this time with polarized light and birefringent material in the specimen. The path differences generated leads to an extinction of certain wavelengths in the light through interference (only certain colors remain from the king is hamlet, white light and about How Urban Life Farmers create beautiful, colored pictures). Polarizing microscopy offers an lion is hamlet, immense amount of information about the composition and three-dimensional structure of a range of samples.

Practically unlimited in about and Its its scope, the technique can reveal information about thermal history and the strains to which a specimen was subjected during formation. Valuable in manufacturing and research, polarizing microscopy is relatively inexpensive and an accessible research and quality control tool that can provide information unavailable with any other technique. Rudi Rottenfusser - Zeiss Microscopy Consultant, 46 Landfall, Falmouth, Massachusetts, 02540. Erin E. Wilson and lion Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.